Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire Sincewhen Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireDecline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured. Timespan[ edit ] The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process in which it failed to enforce its rule. The loss of centralized political control over the West, and the lessened power of the East, are universally agreed, but the theme of decline has been taken to cover a much wider time span than the hundred years from For Cassius Diothe accession of the emperor Commodus in CE marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron".
However, much controversy has been stirred in recent years due to the arrival on the market of a rather plentiful number of small coppers which, while in their entirety are missing the key part of the obverse legend needed to positively identify them, share in common several features which seem to leave no reasonable alternative.
Some of the controversy is no doubt my own fault since I used the approach in my ERIC series and have provisionally helped others make this attribution. Nevertheless, over the last few years as more of these coins have shown up my doubts have grown in step. The main logic of my initial observations rested on a single coin, the RIC plate which Numismatik Lanz sold in shown below: At first glance this piece seems to provide a firm foundation upon which to build the case for legend-less coins to be attributed to this reign assuming other details provide a close match.
For one, the fifth century coinage from Rome is utterly miniscule compared to that of the previous century. Secondly, the arrangement of the legend on such a small coin leaves only emperors of short names as possibilities.
Based on name length alone it likewise rules out Avitus's own replacement Majorian. What about Honorius and Arcadius? Here is where it starts to get interesting.
Arcadius is disqualified right away because his death in predates both the type and the degenerate style that will be introduced after the Visigoths pillaged the Roman capital in Honorius, on the other hand, RIC seems to leave out in the cold.
The closest match would be catalog number but this is specifically accorded to the larger AE3 denomination which Kent helpfully further annotates that an unusually heavy specimen weighs over 6 grams. Moreover, he inexplicably assigns this variant a "common" rarity and makes no serious effort at dating besides lumping this phantom as far as I can tell issue to the "later groups" which presumably brackets them only to within the CE date range.
The AE4 coins Kent does list are dated to no later than based on AVGGG ending legends and their style as shown in the plates leaving no doubt that these do in fact belong to the earlier, finer engraving period.
So, taken together, one can be forgiven for gravitating toward Avitus as the likeliest candidate. However, let's begin a more focused analysis. To start, it stands to reason that the coinage of any one ruler should fit in the overall style of his period; with few changes beyond the legend in the beginning and, perhaps, gradually progressing according to the fashions until his successor takes over who will in turn repeat the process.
The easiest way to tell apart a counterfeit therefore is when you spot a coin that just doesn't match the period in some way. Starting with Johannes - for we have tentatively excluded Honorius as a possibility - and then through the reigns of Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus until we reach Avitus who will be followed by Majorian we should therefore expect an evolutionary progression with no odd intervals.
But this isn't the case here. The engraving quality of Valentinian III's AE coinage is in the very best of cases crude and more typically downright wretched.
By the time we get to Majorian the artistry is somewhere in the realm of surreal and the fabric of the coins themselves uniformly atrocious.
Yet, tellingly, RIC as pictured above is holding it together with a rather fine style not seen since the days of Honorius and Arcadius nearly a half century before.Here's a blues based on the 4-note motive F, E, Eb, C, which is transposed throughout the (somewhat unusual) blues progression.
While in 4/4 overall, measures are in . First off, I will start with a formal analysis of the object.
Augustus of Primaporta, which now sits in the Vatican Museum, is a white marble sculpture of a strong and handsome young man in his armor.
In order to keep its ever-growing lower classes from revolt, Roman emperors sold the games as a great Roman tradition, in effect orchestrating a "spectacle" to keep people in line.
Another Roman connection is in the tradition of the Stoic. Arched Bridges History and Analysis Lily Beyer 5/4/ An exploration of arched bridges design, construction, and analysis through history; with a Roman road system tied the empire together, and those roads required many bridges.
these bridges are still standing today, a tribute to the excellence of the engineers who built them. Tribune, Latin Tribunus, any of various military and civil officials in ancient Rome. Military tribunes (tribuni militum) were originally infantry commanders.
Under the early republic there were six to a legion; some were appointed by the consuls (chief executives) or military . I. INTRODUCTION. Christians have traditionally interpreted the famous passage "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God, the things that .