Entire Country iii Sulphur in Diesel:
Melosi Auto Emissions and Air Pollution The Santa Barbara oil spill was a dramatic reminder of the risks inherent in the search for energy resources. Emissions from the internal combustion engine, however, have proved to be the most significant environmental consequence of oil production.
Street cleaners who sang the praises of the motor car for delivering them from tons of horse manure could not appreciate that the environmental panacea of one generation proved to be the bane of another. The technical limits of the internal combustion engine and the scale of automobile use produced devastating forms of pollution.
Some pollution crises in the postwar years were harbingers of things to come. Ina temperature inversion kept a dense smoke cloud of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter close to the ground for six days in the steel mill town of Donora, Pennsylvania.
On the fifth day, October 30, seventeen people died, followed by two more deaths twenty-four hours later. Almost 43 percent of the townspeople became ill, with more than 10 percent 1, "severely affected. Those dangers were reconfirmed by the "killer smog" that hit London in 4, deaths and the serious smog attack in New York City in deaths.
Congress enacted the National Air Pollution Control Act in to generate research on air pollution, but how automobile emissions fit into the story took several years to evaluate and even longer to address. A relatively new source of air contamination, automobile emissions posed different problems than manufacturing discharges such as coal smoke.
Before the Industrial Revolution, levels of toxic chemicals in the air were relatively low, but increased fossil-fuel production and use dramatically decreased air quality. The addition of many thousands of cars on the road in the years after World War II intensified the spread of air pollution, added more and newer sources of pollutants, and most immediately threatened many major cities.
In the s, citizens of the car-dominated Los Angeles basin complained about a white or sometimes yellow-brown haze that made their eyes tear. They referred to this irritation as "smog.
The more recent version of smog, primarily from automobile emissions, is composed of a complex of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, waste heat, and aerosols liquid droplets, solid particles, and other various mixtures of liquids and solids suspended in air.
Tropospheric ozone, located a few feet above ground, is another significant component of smog. In the late s, at least 60 million people in North America regularly breathed air that failed to achieve federal air quality standards established ten years earlier; during the summer heat wave inthe number rose to million.
Individually or together, the various components pose a health hazard to humans. Auto emissions can cause headaches, contribute to lung cancer, emphysema, and various other respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and have been linked to low birth weight in infants.
They also modify weather conditions, damage vegetation, and eat away at rubber, textiles, dyes, and other materials. The use of tetraethyl lead as a gasoline additive in introduced yet another toxic substance to automobile emissions that threatened human health.
Concerns among public health officials about the poisonous nature of the substance did not deter General Motors and others from promoting leaded gasoline.
Infants crawling on the floor then picked it up on their fingers and ingested it, interfering with the development of their nervous systems and contributing to hyperactivity and hearing loss, among other effects, although it would be decades.
While air pollution from cars was a growing problem throughout the immediate postwar period, it was not an issue among automobile manufacturers, oil companies, or the public. Los Angeles, the "smog capital of America," was probably the first city to raise major public concern over auto emissions, and became the living laboratory for studying the causes and effects of massive doses of smog.
The State of California also was the first state to establish new-car emission standards. As early aseye irritation was reported in Los Angeles County on days; indays.
A typical car produced in without pollution control devices discharged pounds of hydrocarbons, 1, pounds of carbon monoxide, and 90 pounds of nitrogen oxide for every 10, miles traveled.
In86 million of approximately million tons of pollutants discharged into the air in the United States was attributable to motor vehicle traffic.
Beginning in Los Angeles had reduced sulfur dioxide emissions by banning the use of coal and fuel oils for industrial purposes, but the smog problem continued to increase. In the s suspicions were being raised about the contribution of motor vehicles to the air pollution problem of the area.Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence Environment is the area in which we live and srmvision.com thin layer of air that surrounds our planet that supports srmvision.com are the only kind of life that we know of that exists in our universe.
If we did not have our environment we could not exist. Full-Text Paper (PDF): Strategies for Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in India.
Vehicular pollution has grown at an alarming rate due to growing urbanisation in India. The air pollution from vehicles in urban areas, particularly in big cities, has become a serious problem.
The pollution from vehicles has begun to tell through symptoms like cough, headache, nausea, irritation of eyes, various bronchial and visibility problems. New Methods for Assessment of Pollution Prevention Technologies TSE, Life cycle analysis., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Sustainable Industry/Business.
Auto Emissions and Air Pollution. The new law also set more stringent emissions standards for automobiles and some trucks for model years to Sources of Formaldehyde Gas in Your Home, Health Effects, and How to Test for and Control It Sources of Formaldehyde Gas in homes, workplaces, and schools is a very common culprit for causing general indoor air pollution, Sick Building Syndrome, and even increased risk of cancer.