When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into predatory kingdoms that competed for power.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Historically, England was a very homogeneous country and developed coherent traditions, but, especially as the British Empire expanded and the country absorbed peoples from throughout the globe, English culture has been accented with diverse contributions from Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Muslims, and other immigrant groups.
Other parts of the United Kingdom have experienced the same social and cultural diversification, with the result that England is not always distinguishable from Wales and Scotland or even Northern Ireland. The former insularity of English life has been replaced by a cosmopolitan familiarity with all things exotic: Even as England has become ever more diverse culturally, it continues to exert a strong cultural influence on the rest of the world.
English music, film, and literature enjoy wide audiences overseas, and the English language has gained ever-increasing currency as the preferred international medium of cultural and economic exchange. Daily life and social customs Historically, English daily life and customs were markedly different in urban and rural areas.
Indeed, much of English literature and popular culture has explored the tension between town and country and between farm and factory. Urbanites, for example, commonly retire to villages and country cottages, and even the smallest urban dwelling is likely to have a garden.
In music literature and history programs, you can study musical compositions from various historical periods and cultures. Degree programs in music literature and history are available at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Hey, hey, counterfeit fake History wants you, they made a mistake Hey, hey, counterfeit fake History wants you, they made a mistake Hey, hey, Save the Population. Red Hot Chili Peppers. Greatest Hits [Greatest Hits and Videos] Red Hot Chili Peppers. In the midth century in England Thomas Gray and William Collins wrote important odes and elegies; at the end of the century the Scottish poet Robert Burns wrote lyrics in his native dialect. English lyric poetry flourished in the .
Another divide, though one that is fast disappearing, is the rigid class system that long made it difficult for nonaristocratic individuals to rise to positions of prominence in commerce, government, and education.
Many holidays in England, such as Christmas, are celebrated throughout the world, though the traditional English Christmas is less a commercial event than an opportunity for singing and feasting. Other remembrances are unique to England and are nearly inexplicable to outsiders.
English cuisine has traditionally been based on beef, lambpork, chicken, and fish, all cooked with the minimum of embellishment and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable—or, in the case of fish most commonly cod or haddock deep-fried in batter and served with deep-fried potato slices chips.
Immigrants from India and Hong Kong arrived with their own distinctive cuisine, and Indian and Chinese restaurants became a familiar sight in every part of England.
By the s, American-style fast-food restaurants dotted the landscape, and the rapid post-World War II growth of holiday travel to Europeparticularly to France, Spain, Greece, and Italy, exposed the English to new foods, flavours, and ingredients, many of which found their way into a new generation of recipe books that filled the shelves of the typical English kitchen.
The arts Literature In its literature, England arguably has attained its most influential cultural expression. For more than a millennium, each stage in the development of the English language has produced its masterworks.
Anglo-Saxon literaturewritten in the Old English languageis remarkably diverse. Following the Norman Conquest ofFrench influence shaped the vocabulary as well as the literary preoccupations of Middle English.
The Elizabethan era of the late 16th century fostered the flowering of the European Renaissance in England and the golden age of English literature. The plays of William Shakespearewhile on their surface representing the culmination of Elizabethan English, achieve a depth of characterization and richness of invention that have fixed them in the dramatic repertoire of virtually every language.
The publication of the King James Version of the Bible in infused the literature of the period with both religious imagery and a remarkably vigorous language, and it served as an important instrument for the spread of literacy throughout England.
William Shakespeare, detail of an oil painting attributed to John Taylor, c. Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London http: Also during this period, the novel emerged as a form capable of bringing everyday life into the province of literature, as can be seen in the work of Jane Austen.
Lawrenceand London on Charles Dickens. In the mid to late 19th century, English literature increasingly addressed social concerns, yielding the utopian writings of William Morris and Samuel Butlerthe psychological analysis of George Eliotthe realistic novels of Elizabeth Gaskelland the nationalistic stories and fables of Rudyard Kipling.
William Wordsworth, engraving, It also absorbed and transmuted alien elements, taking into the mainstream of its tradition poets as Irish as William Butler Yeatsas Welsh as Dylan Thomasor as securely in the classic line as the American expatriates T.
Eliot and Henry James. Popular novelists such as Agatha ChristieP.
AudenTed Hughesand Philip Larkin brought a new approach to questions of personal relationships, and novelists Anthony BurgessGraham Greeneand Kingsley Amis dealt with moral ambiguities and modern dilemmas.In music literature and history programs, you can study musical compositions from various historical periods and cultures.
Degree programs in music literature and history are available at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The 16th Century Lyric in England: A Critical and Historical Reinterpretation: Part I By Yvor Winters JSTOR and the Poetry Foundation are collaborating to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Poetry.
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Music History and Literature ( - hours) - Fall course requirements The bachelor of music degree with a major in music history and . In its literature, England arguably has attained its most influential cultural expression. For more than a millennium, each stage in the development of the English language has produced its masterworks.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, Discussions and analysis still continue on the size of the migration, the lull, the Anglo-Saxons took control of Sussex, Kent, East Anglia and part of Yorkshire; while the West Saxons founded a kingdom in Hampshire under the leadership of Cerdic, around