Introduction to human development

Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.

Introduction to human development

Things to think about What is Human Ecology? Ecology is the science of relationships between living organisms and their environment. Human ecology is about relationships between people and their environment. In human ecology the environment is perceived as an ecosystem see Figure 1.


An ecosystem is everything in a specified area - the air, soil, water, living organisms and physical structures, including everything built by humans. The living parts of an ecosystem - microorganisms, plants and animals including humans - are its biological community. Ecosystems can be any size.

A small pond in a forest is an ecosystem, and the entire forest is an ecosystem. A single farm is an ecosystem, and a rural landscape is an ecosystem. Villages, towns and large cities are ecosystems.

A region of thousands of square kilometres is an ecosystem, and the planet Earth is an ecosystem. Although humans are part of the ecosystem, it is useful to think of human - environment interaction as interaction between the human social system and the rest of the ecosystem see Figure 1.

The social system is everything about people, their population and the psychology and social organization that shape their behaviour. The social system is a central concept in human ecology because human activities that impact on ecosystems are strongly influenced by the society in which people live.

Values and knowledge - which together form our worldview as individuals and as a society - shape the way that we process and interpret information and translate it into action. Technology defines our repertoire of possible actions.

Introduction to human development

Social organization, and the social institutions that specify socially acceptable behaviour, shape the possibilities into what we actually do. Like ecosystems, social systems can be on any scale - from a family to the entire human population of the planet.

These ecosystem services include water, fuel, food, materials for clothing, construction materials and recreation. Movements of materials are obvious; energy and information are less so.

Every material object contains energy, most conspicuous in foods and fuels, and every object contains information in the way it is structured or organized. Information can move from ecosystems to social systems independent of materials.

Material, energy and information move from social system to ecosystem as a consequence of human activities that impact the ecosystem: People affect ecosystems when they use resources such as water, fish, timber and livestock grazing land.

After using materials from ecosystems, people return the materials to ecosystems as waste. People intentionally modify or reorganize existing ecosystems, or create new ones, to better serve their needs. With machines or human labour, people use energy to modify or create ecosystems by moving materials within them or between them.

They transfer information from social system to ecosystem whenever they modify, reorganize, or create an ecosystem.

An example of social system - ecosystem interaction: The following story is about fishing. Fishing is directed toward one part of the marine ecosystem, namely fish, but fishing has unintended effects on other parts of the ecosystem.

Those effects set in motion a series of additional effects that go back and forth between ecosystem and social system see Figure 1. Drift nets are nylon nets that are invisible in the water. Fish become tangled in drift nets when they try to swim through them.

During the s, fishermen used thousands of kilometres of drift nets to catch fish in oceans around the world. In the mid s, it was discovered that drift nets were killing large numbers of dolphins, seals, turtles and other marine animals that drowned after becoming entangled in the nets - a transfer of information from ecosystem to social system, as depicted in Figure 1.

The governments of some nations did not respond, but other nations took the problem to the United Nations, which passed a resolution that all nations should stop using drift nets. At first, many fishermen did not want to stop using drift nets, but their governments forced them to change.

Within a few years the fishermen switched from drift nets to long lines and other fishing methods. Long lines, which feature baited hooks hanging from a main line often kilometres in length, have been a common method of fishing for many years.Anatomy and Physiology covers a variety of subjects that relate to the human body, with an emphasis on information needed by aspiring health professionals.

Introduction to Human Development Nature vs. Nurture Developmental psychology seeks to understand the influence of genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) on . Human Resource Development is important to any growing business organization because it helps to improve business performance through the development of personnel, and, directing and enhancing talents and skills through planned activities design to improve organizational learning.

Human evolution. Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.

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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Interest in human development is widespread largely because of curiosity about our beginnings and a desire to improve the quality of human life.

The process by which a baby develops from a single cell is miraculous and few events are more exciting than a human birth. Too Human is an action role-playing game developed by Canadian developer Silicon Knights and published by Microsoft Studios for the Xbox in August The game is noted for having remained in development hell for almost ten years, originally planned for release on the Sony PlayStation in Development later went into the Nintendo GameCube in before eventually selling the rights.

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