Performance appraisal means to evaluate the performance of employees they are performing their jobs up to the typical of the organizations or not. To evaluate the performance of employees it is very important to establish an effective performance appraisal system in the organization and to supply the training to the professionals of the organization to appraise the performance of employees correctly. This is a wide subject matter for research and many research workers have done their researches on performance appraisal to increase the performance appraisal system of company. In some organizations management has integrated poor system of appraisal in these articles authors have reviewed that the have found the negative attitude of employees towards performance appraisal.
The topic is literally not new; it is as old as the formation of the organizations. With the passage of the time the methods and rating system among the employees got enhanced and received an immense appreciation and attentions of the managers.
Behavioral Observation Scale BOS is one of the best techniques utilized by the managers to arte the employees. The dilemma was on the peak in the s and s. The innovations were dominant one which condensed the errors and improved the observation skills from the performance appraisal practice.
According to the research of Arvey and Murphythere were hundreds of thousands of researches had been taken place between the periods of towhich merely focused on the different types of rating scales. Landy and Farr reviewed and researched the methods of performance appraisal in totally a different manner, in which they understand the rater and process in an organizational context.
Other Performance appraisal reports include the rater characteristics in their report like race, gender and likeability.
After the year the biasness among the performance appraisal system occurred outrageously and appraisal had been granted on the favoritism or race and gender basis rather examined the knowledge, skills and style of the work of the employee. The accuracy criteria among the performance appraisal system clutched its grip in the start of the s, where the researches were emphasized on common psychometric biases which include the diversified rating errors like leniency, central tendency and halo, which were termed as rating errors in the appraisal method.
It has been observed that the bias free appraisals were inevitably true or more precisely we can say more accurate, but the concept was totally refused by the research of Hulin in Researches which had been done in the year were found the most dominating one which contributed the appraisal system in a great deal.
The researches of the also helped out to clarify some presumed assumptions regarding the performance appraisal, just like the work of Murphy Research has included the measure of employee attitudes towards the system of performance appraisal and its acceptance Roberts, Bernardian and Beattysuggested in their research that behavioral and attitudinal kinds of measure ultimately prove to be better anticipator as compared with the traditional psychometric variables, which we have declared earlier as well, like leniency, halo and discriminability.
A Performance Appraisal system is totally ineffective in practice due to the dearth of approval from the end users Roberts, According to a number of researchers, the enhanced and upgraded performance appraisal procedure and method will enhance the satisfaction level of the employees and definitely will improve the process of goal setting within the organization.
Landy, And Farr, J.
An Organizational Perspective, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Roberts G.chapter 1. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT. chapter 1.
R. emember the story about the naive student in his first English literature course who was worried because he didn’ t know what.
The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence. Performance appraisal also known as performance review, formally documents the achievements of an individual with regards to set targets.
It is a component of PMS. The system has become an essential management tool in today’s organizations. Many contemporary organizations are placing a greater emphasis on their performance management systems as a means of generating higher levels of job performance.
32 CHAPTER – 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE INTORDUCTION: Review of literature has vital relevance with any research work due to literature review the possibility of repetition of .