Visit Website This effectively calmed simmering tensions between peoples of the two faiths within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 60 years, although there were flare ups, including the Cologne War and the War of the Julich Succession
The Thirty Years' War. In the empire there were some 1, separate, semiautonomous political units, many of them very small—such as the Imperial Knights, direct vassals of the emperor and particularly numerous in the southwest, who might each own only part of one village—and others comparable in size with smaller independent states elsewhere, such as Scotland or the Dutch Republic.
These were large polities, indeed, but they were weakened by three factors. First, they did not accept primogeniture: Second, many of the states were geographically fragmented: These factors had, in the course of time, created in Germany a balance of power between the states.
The territorial strength of the Habsburgs may have brought them a monopoly of the imperial title from onward, but they could do no more: However, the third weakness—the religious upheaval of the 16th century—changed all that: Swabia, for example, more or less equal in area to modern Switzerland, included 68 secular and 40 spiritual princes and also 32 imperial free cities.
By more than half of these rulers and almost exactly half of the population were Catholic ; the rest were Protestant. Neither bloc was prepared to let the other mobilize an army.
Similar paralysis was Should the thirty years war be be found in most other regions: The Religious Peace of Augsburg in had put an end to 30 years of sporadic confessional warfare in Germany between Catholics and Lutherans by creating a layered structure of legal securities for the people of the empire.
The only exceptions to this rule were the imperial free cities, where both Lutherans and Catholics were to enjoy freedom of worship, and the Catholic ecclesiastical states, where bishops and abbots who wished to become Lutherans were obliged to resign first.
The latter provision, known as the reservatum ecclesiasticum, gave rise to a war in —88 when the archbishop of Cologne declared himself a Protestant but refused to resign: Until then, the Catholics had been on the defensive, losing ground steadily to the Protestants.
Even the decrees of the Council of Trentwhich animated Catholics elsewhere, failed to strengthen the position of the Roman church in Germany. After the successful struggle to retain Cologne, however, Catholic princes began to enforce the cuius regio principle with rigour.
Most of those affected were adherents of the Lutheran church, already weakened by defections to Calvinisma new creed that had scarcely a German adherent at the time of the Religious Peace of Augsburg.
The rulers of the PalatinateNassauHesse-Kasseland Brandenburg all abandoned Lutheranism for the new confession, as did many lesser rulers and several towns. Small wonder that the Lutherans came to detest the Calvinists even more than they loathed the Catholics. These religious divisions created a complex confessional pattern in Germany.
By the first decade of the 17th century, the Catholics were firmly entrenched south of the Danube and the Lutherans northeast of the Elbe; but the areas in between were a patchwork quilt of Calvinist, Lutheran, and Catholic, and in some places one could find all three.
But for years the Catholic minority had not been permitted full rights of public worship. When in the priests tried to hold a procession through the streets, they were beaten and their relics and banners were desecrated.
These dramatic events thoroughly alarmed Protestants elsewhere in Germany. Was this, they wondered, the first step in a new Catholic offensive against heresy? Elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate took the lead.
On May 14,he formed the Evangelical, or ProtestantUnion, an association to last for 10 years, for self-defense. His duchies, occupying a strategic position in the Lower Rhineland, had both Protestant and Catholic subjects, but both of the main claimants to the inheritance were Protestants; under the cuius regio principle, their succession would lead to the expulsion of the Catholics.
Since both were members of the Union, they solicited, and received, promises of military aid from their colleagues; they also received, via Christian of Anhalt, similar promises from the kings of France and England. This sudden accretion in Protestant strength caused the German Catholics to take countermeasures: Again, reinforcement for one side provoked countermeasures.
At first sight, this resembles the pyramid of alliances, patiently constructed by the statesmen of Europe years later, which plunged the continent into World War I.
But whereas the motive of diplomats before was fear of political domination, before it was fear of religious extirpation. The Union members were convinced of the existence of a Catholic conspiracy aimed at rooting out all traces of Protestantism from the empire.
In the unity of purpose between pope and emperor was in fact far from perfect, and the last thing Maximilian of Bavaria wished to see was Habsburg participation in the League: This reduction in the Catholic threat was enough to produce reciprocal moves among the Protestants.
They declared that they would no longer become involved in the territorial wrangles of individual members, and they resolved to prolong their association for only three years more. Although, to some extent, war came to Germany after because of the existence of these militant confessional alliances, the continuity must not be exaggerated.
Both Union and League were the products of fear; but the grounds for fear seemed to be receding. The English ambassador in Turin, Isaac Wake, was sanguine:The Thirty Years' War began, however, as a direct result of a conflict in the Hapsburg-ruled Kingdom of Bohemia.
The Bohemian Period () In , the Bohemian Diet elected Ferdinand of Styria as king of Bohemia. Ferdinand, a member of the Hapsburg family, became Holy Roman emperor two years later, as Ferdinand II (r. ). Essays on the thirty years war resulted.
Essays on the thirty years war resulted halyk finance research papers ucsf mepn goal statement essay kovarianz matrix beispiel essay should my common app essay be double spaced essay en essay 6 1 the rise and fall of the berlin wall essay site magister dissertation abstracts college essay urban.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between and One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and srmvision.comon: Central Europe. He argues that wars should never be fought over religious beliefs and jokes that since the Thirty Years War was over religious principles, the soldiers should have fought for free.
The Thirty Years' war, Nine Years' war, Seven Years' war, Napoleonic wars, World War I and World War II all involved very similar actors and for very similar reasons - the domination of central Europe.
The “30 years war” for the court, begun with the rejection of Robert H. Bork’s nomination, has been won.