Information systems and e-government systems d. The challenges of IS in public management 3. The performance concept 4.
Brief history[ edit ] The underlying technology was invented in the later half of the 19th century, including Babbage 's analytical engine and the telegraph. Digital communication became economical for widespread adoption after the invention of the personal computer.
Claude Shannona Bell Labs mathematician, is credited for having laid out the foundations of digitalization in his pioneering article, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. By doing this, it became possible to make copies that were identical to the original.
In digital communications, for example, repeating hardware was able to amplify the digital signal and pass it on with no loss of information in the signal.
Of equal importance to the revolution was the ability to easily move the digital information between media, and to access or distribute it remotely. The turning point of the revolution was the change from analogue to digitally recorded music.
From the late s, Universities, the Military, and Business developed computer systems, to digitally replicate and automate previously manualy performed mathematical calculations, with the LEO computer being the first commercially available general purpose computer.
A key step toward mass commercialization was the advent of the planar process in by Jean Hoernian employee of Fairchild Semiconductor.
This enabled integrated circuits to be mass produced using the techniques of photolithography.
From toIntel developed the Intelan early microprocessor that laid the foundations for the microcomputer revolution that began in the s. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworkingin which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.
The Whole Earth movement of the s advocated the use of new technology. As digital technology proliferated, and the switch from analog to digital record keeping became the new standard in business, a relatively new job description was popularized, the data entry clerk.
Culled from the ranks of secretaries and typists from earlier decades, the data entry clerk's job was to convert analog data customer records, invoices, etc. Automated teller machinesindustrial robotsCGI in film and television, electronic musicbulletin board systemsand video games all fueled what became the zeitgeist of the s.
Millions of people purchased home computers, making household names of early personal computer manufacturers such as Apple, Commodore, and Tandy. To this day the Commodore 64 is often cited as the best selling computer of all time, having sold 17 million units by some accounts  between and Inthe U.
Census Bureau began collecting data on computer and Internet use in the United States; their first survey showed that 8. Motorola created the first mobile phone, Motorola DynaTacin However, this device used analog communication - digital cell phones were not sold commercially until when the 2G network started to be opened in Finland to accommodate the unexpected demand for cell phones that was becoming apparent in the late s.
Digital ink was also invented in the late s. The World Wide Web became publicly accessible inwhich had been available only to government and universities.
The Internet expanded quickly, and byit was part of mass culture and many businesses listed websites in their ads. By almost every country had a connection, and nearly half of Americans and people in several other countries used the Internet on a regular basis.
However throughout the s, "getting online" entailed complicated configuration, and dial-up was the only connection type affordable by individual users; the present day mass Internet culture was not possible. They also became much more advanced than phones of the s, most of which only took calls or at most allowed for the playing of simple games.
Text messaging existed in the s but was not widely used until the early s, when it became a cultural phenomenon. The digital revolution became truly global in this time as well - after revolutionizing society in the developed world in the s, the digital revolution spread to the masses in the developing world in the s.
In late the population of the Internet reached 1 billion,  and 3 billion people worldwide used cell phones by the end of the decade.
HDTV became the standard television broadcasting format in many countries by the end of the decade. Cloud computing had entered the mainstream by the early s. Bytablet computers and smartphones were expected to exceed personal computers in Internet usage.Since then, a decade of studies at the firm and country level has consistently shown that the impact of IT investment on labor productivity and economic growth is significant and positive.
This article critically reviews the published research, more than 50 articles, on computers and productivity. The Influence and Impact of Computerization in the Past Decade PAGES WORDS 3, View Full Essay. More essays like this: world wide information, computerization, global network.
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