Gorillas are fruit-eating anthropoid apes and the largest and strongest of all apes. When comparing humans with gorillas, the main areas to consider are: Physical characteristics of human skull vs.
Genetics[ edit ] One of the strongest evidences for common descent comes from gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis examines the relationship between the DNA sequences of different species,  producing several lines of evidence that confirm Darwin's original hypothesis of common descent.
If the hypothesis of common descent is true, then species that share a common ancestor inherited that ancestor's DNA sequence, as well as mutations unique to that ancestor. More closely related species have a greater fraction of identical sequence and shared substitutions compared to more distantly related species.
While on board HMS BeagleCharles Darwin collected numerous specimens, many new to science, which supported his later theory of evolution by natural selection. The simplest and most powerful evidence is provided by phylogenetic reconstruction.
Such reconstructions, especially when done using slowly evolving protein sequences, are often quite robust and can be used to reconstruct a great deal of the evolutionary history of modern organisms and even in some instances of the evolutionary history of extinct organisms, such as the recovered gene sequences of mammoths or Neanderthals.
These reconstructed phylogenies recapitulate the relationships established through morphological and biochemical studies. While a minority of these elements might later be found to harbor function, in aggregate they demonstrate that identity must be the product of common descent rather than common function.
Perhaps most tellingly, the Genetic Code the "translation table" between DNA and amino acids is the same for almost every organism, meaning that a piece of DNA in a bacterium codes for the same amino acid as in a human cell.
ATP is used as energy currency by all extant life. A deeper understanding of developmental biology shows that common morphology is, in fact, the product of shared genetic elements. DNA sequencing[ edit ] Comparison of DNA sequences allows organisms to be grouped by sequence similarity, and the resulting phylogenetic trees are typically congruent with traditional taxonomyand are often used to strengthen or correct taxonomic classifications.
Sequence comparison is considered a measure robust enough to correct erroneous assumptions in the phylogenetic tree in instances where other evidence is scarce.
|4: The Bipedal Ape||Updated on June 9, more 1.|
|Timeline of human evolution - Wikipedia||Evolutionary tree showing the divergence of modern species from the last universal ancestor in the center.|
For example, neutral human DNA sequences are approximately 1. The analysis by Carl Woese resulted in the three-domain systemarguing for two major splits in the early evolution of life. The first split led to modern Bacteria and the subsequent split led to modern Archaea and Eukaryotes.
Some DNA sequences are shared by very different organisms. It has been predicted by the theory of evolution that the differences in such DNA sequences between two organisms should roughly resemble both the biological difference between them according to their anatomy and the time that had passed since these two organisms have separated in the course of evolution, as seen in fossil evidence.
The rate of accumulating such changes should be low for some sequences, namely those that code for critical RNA or proteinsand high for others that code for less critical RNA or proteins; but for every specific sequence, the rate of change should be roughly constant over time.
These results have been experimentally confirmed. Two examples are DNA sequences coding for rRNAwhich is highly conserved, and DNA sequences coding for fibrinopeptides amino acid chains that are discarded during the formation of fibrinwhich are highly non-conserved.
Vital proteinssuch as the ribosomeDNA polymeraseand RNA polymeraseare found in everything from the most primitive bacteria to the most complex mammals. The core part of the protein is conserved across all lineages of life, serving similar functions.
Higher organisms have evolved additional protein subunitslargely affecting the regulation and protein-protein interaction of the core. Other overarching similarities between all lineages of extant organisms, such as DNARNAamino acids, and the lipid bilayergive support to the theory of common descent.
Phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences from various organisms produce similar trees of relationship between all organisms. As there is no functional advantage to right- or left-handed molecular chirality, the simplest hypothesis is that the choice was made randomly by early organisms and passed on to all extant life through common descent.
Further evidence for reconstructing ancestral lineages comes from junk DNA such as pseudogenes"dead" genes that steadily accumulate mutations.
A pseudogene can be produced when a coding gene accumulates mutations that prevent it from being transcribed, making it non-functional. Non-functional pseudogenes may be passed on to later species, thereby labeling the later species as descended from the earlier species.
Other mechanisms[ edit ] A large body of molecular evidence supports a variety of mechanisms for large evolutionary changes, including: The endosymbiotic theory explains the origin of mitochondria and plastids including chloroplastswhich are organelles of eukaryotic cells, as the incorporation of an ancient prokaryotic cell into ancient eukaryotic cell.
Rather than evolving eukaryotic organelles slowly, this theory offers a mechanism for a sudden evolutionary leap by incorporating the genetic material and biochemical composition of a separate species.
Evidence supporting this mechanism has been found in the protist Hatena: Many lineages diverged when new metabolic processes appeared, and it is theoretically possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ancestor or by detecting their physical manifestations.Apr 07, · The gorilla can laugh, chuckle, cry and scream as well as make a sound called a “belch vocalization” to indicate its location in a densely foliaged area.
8. Gorillas have a similar upbringing: The gestation period for a female gorilla is months, while a female human’s is 9 srmvision.coms: In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Evolutionary biologists document evidence of common descent, all the way back to the last universal common ancestor, by developing testable predictions, testing hypotheses, and constructing theories that illustrate and describe its causes. Adding to the already-sequenced genomes of humans, chimpanzees and orangutans, researchers have completed the set of the great apes by sequencing the genes of a western lowland gorilla.
† Sonntag notes the small size of the chimpanzee gluteal muscles in comparison with those of humans (Sonntag , p. ) and that they are small, also, in the gibbons and Old World monkeys (Sonntag , pp. 55, 65). By Dave Mosher, for National Geographic News PUBLISHED March 8, Staring face to face with a gorilla, it's hard not to find them eerily similar to humans—and now the first published gorilla genome supports that, according to a new study.