Anarchism[ edit ] See the main article on this topic: Anarchism A form of government or lack thereof with no ruling hierarchy, instead decisions are made at a directly democratic level: See the main article on this topic: Anarcho-capitalism A stateless society composed of sovereign individuals living within the constraints of a free market.
Voters are pressured to vote for one of the two candidates they predict are most likely to win, even if their true preference is neither, because a vote for any other candidate will likely have no impact on the final result. Any other party will typically need to build up its votes and credibility over a series of elections before it is seen as electable.
The difficulty is sometimes summed up, in an extreme form, as "All votes for anyone other than the second place are votes for the winner", because by voting for other candidates, they have denied those votes to the second place candidate who could have won had they received them.
Historically, there has been a tendency for Independentista voters to elect Popular candidates and policies. This phenomenon is responsible for some Popular victories, even though the Estadistas have the most voters on the island.
It is so widely recognised that the Puerto Ricans sometimes call the Independentistas who vote for the Populares "melons", because the fruit is green on the outside but red on the inside in reference to the party colors.
Because voters have to predict in advance who the top two candidates will be, this can cause significant perturbation to the system: Substantial power is given to the media. Even voters who distrust the media will know that other voters do believe the media, and therefore those candidates who receive the most media attention will nonetheless be the most popular and thus most likely to be in one of the top two.
A newly appointed candidate, who is in fact supported by the majority of voters, may be considered due to the lack of a track record to not be likely to become one of the top two candidates; thus, they will receive a reduced number of votes, which will then give them a reputation as a low poller in future elections, compounding the problem.
The system may promote votes against more so than votes for. In the UK, entire campaigns have been organised with the aim of voting against the Conservative party by voting either Labour or Liberal Democrat. If enough voters use this tactic, the first-past-the-post system becomes, effectively, runoff voting —a completely different system—where the first round is held in the court of public opinion; a good example of this is the Winchester by-election, Proponents of other single-winner electoral systems argue that their proposals would reduce the need for tactical voting and reduce the spoiler effect.
Examples include the commonly used two-round system of runoffs and instant runoff votingalong with less tested systems such as approval votingscore voting and Condorcet methods.
Fewer political parties[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. First-past-the-post tends to reduce the number of political parties to a greater extent than most other methods do, making it more likely that a single party will hold a majority of legislative seats.
In the United Kingdom21 out of 24 General Elections since have produced a single-party majority government. It is entirely possible that a voter finds all major parties to have similar views on issues and that a voter does not have a meaningful way of expressing a dissenting opinion through his vote.
As fewer choices are offered to voters, voters may vote for a candidate although they disagree with him, because they disagree even more with his opponents.
Consequently, candidates will less closely reflect the viewpoints of those who vote for them. Furthermore, one-party rule is more likely to lead to radical changes in government policy even though the changes are favoured only by a plurality or a bare majority of the voters, whereas a multi-party system usually require greater consensus in order to make dramatic changes in policy.
This section does not cite any sources. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Wasted votes are votes cast for losing candidates or votes cast for winning candidates in excess of the number required for victory.
This is perhaps the most fundamental criticism of FPTP, that a large majority of votes may play no part in determining the outcome. Alternative electoral systems attempt to ensure that almost all votes are effective in influencing the result and the number of wasted votes is consequently minimised.
In gerrymanderingconstituencies are deliberately designed to unfairly increase the number of seats won by one party at the expense of another. In brief, suppose that governing party G wishes to reduce the seats that will be won by opposition party O in the next election.
It creates a number of constituencies in each of which O has an overwhelming majority of votes.A real-time demo of the most devastating election theft mechanism yet found, with context and explanation.
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A real-time demo of the most devastating election theft mechanism yet found, with context and explanation. Demonstration uses a real voting system and real vote databases and takes place in seconds across multiple jurisdictions. A democracy is a government run by the people.
Each citizen has a say (or vote) in how the government is run. This is different from a monarchy or dictatorship where one person (the king or dictator) has all the power.
Types of Democracy There are two main types of democracies: direct and. Sep 29, · A new report suggests Pennsylvania could give Florida a run for its money.
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